Series on Blogging with LaTeX

This is the 4th post in the series. Previous ones:

Many of the examples shown here were adapted from the Wikipedia article Displaying a formula, which is actually about formulas in Math Markup. .

Spacing in formulas

There are some modifiers that can add some spaces between LaTeX constructs displayed in mathematical expressions:

\, small space

\: medium space

\; large space

\! negative space

\quad – large separation

\qquad – very large separation


  • \forall x,y \, \exists z gives \forall x,y \exists z
  • \forall x,y \, \exists z gives \forall x,y \, \exists z
  • \forall x,y \: \exists z gives \forall x,y \: \exists z
  • \forall x,y \; \exists z gives \forall x,y \; \exists z
  • \sum_i \; \sum_j x_{i,j} gives \sum_i \; \sum_j x_{i,j}
  • \sum_i \; \sum_j x_{i,j} gives \sum_i \sum_j x_{i,j}
  • \sum_i \! \sum_j x_{i,j} gives \sum_i \! \sum_j x_{i,j}
  • \sum_i x_i q\quad \sum_j y_j gives \sum_i x_i \quad \sum_j y_j
  • \sum_i x_i \qquad \sum_j y_j gives \sum_i x_i \qquad \sum_j y_j


Font styles

Supported font styles:

  • {\rm Roman} {\rm Roman}
  • {\bf Bold} {\bf Bold}
  • {\it Italic} {\it Italic}
  • {\sf Sans Serif} {\sf Sans Serif}
  • {\sl Slanted} {\sl Slanted}
  • {\cal A B C D E F} {\cal A B C D E F}
  • {\frak A} {\frak B} {\frak C} {\frak d} {\frak e} {\frak f} {\frak A} {\frak B} {\frak C} {\frak d} {\frak e} {\frak f}


a) default style
\oint_C \nabla \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S rot \, E \cdot dS gives \oint_C \nabla \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S rot \, E \cdot dS

b) some changes: nabla to triangledown, fonts in rot and E
\oint_C \triangledown \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S {\bf rot} \, {\sf E} \cdot dS \oint_C \triangledown \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S {\bf rot} \, {\sf E} \cdot dS


Some extra symbols

Some Hebrew characters, Greek characters and some miscellaneous stuff . Some special symbols. There are many more in Wikipedia article.

\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth

\aleph \; \beth \; \gimel  \; \daleth

\varpi \varrho \varsigma \varphi \varepsilon \vartheta \varkappa

\varpi \; \varrho \; \varsigma \; \varphi  \; \varepsilon \; \vartheta \; \varkappa

\pi \rho \sigma \phi \epsilon \theta \kappa (compare with the ones above)

\pi \; \rho \; \sigma \; \phi  \; \epsilon \; \theta \; \kappa

\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \zeta \eta \iota \lambda \mu \nu \xi \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega

\; \alpha \; \beta \; \gamma \; \delta \; \zeta \; \eta  \; \iota  \; \lambda \; \mu \; \nu \; \xi  \; \tau \; \upsilon \; \phi \; \chi \; \psi \; \omega

\Theta \Upsilon \Phi \Psi \Omega

\Theta \;  \Upsilon \; \Phi  \; \Psi \; \Omega

\Gamma \Delta \Lambda \Xi \Pi \Sigma

\Gamma \; \Delta \; \Lambda  \; \Xi \; \Pi   \; \Sigma

\digamma \Finv \varpropto

\digamma \; \Finv \; \varpropto

\flat \natural \sharp \hbar \Bbbk

\flat \; \natural \; \sharp \; \hbar  \; \Bbbk

\diamondsuit \heartsuit \clubsuit \spadesuit \Game

\diamondsuit \heartsuit \clubsuit \spadesuit \Game


Parenthesizing big expressions, brackets, bars

Examples of several types of constructions with parenthesizing

\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( … \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]

\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( ... \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]

\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ … \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle

\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ ... \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle

\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| … \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big|

\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| ... \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big|

\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor … \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rcei

\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor ... \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rceil

\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow … \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow

\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow ... \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow

\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow … \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow
\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow ... \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow

\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / … \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash
\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / ... \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash

More constructions

Parentheses ( \frac{a}{b} ) \quad \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )

( \frac{a}{b} ) \quad  \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )

Brackets \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack

\left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack

Braces \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace

\left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace

Angle brackets \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle

\left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle

Bars and double bars \left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \quad \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|

\left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert  \quad \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|

Floor and ceiling functions \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \quad \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil

\left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor  \quad \left \lceil  \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil

Slashes and backslashes \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash

\left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash

Up, down and up-down arrows \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow
\left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow


Delimiters can be mixed, as long as: \left and \right match

\left [ 0,1 \right )

\left [ 0,1 \right) \

( 0,1 ) [ 0,1 ] ( 0,1 ] [ 0,1 ) also work , without the need of \left and \right

( 0,1 ) \; [ 0,1 ]   \;  ( 0,1 ]  \; [ 0,1 ) \

\left \langle \psi \right |

\left \langle \psi \right |

\langle \psi | …….\langle \psi | \phi \rangle \ ….. and

\langle \psi | \, A^TBA \, | \phi \rangle ……. also work

\langle \psi  |  \quad  \langle \psi | \phi \rangle  \quad  \langle \psi | \, A^TBA \, | \phi \rangle

Use \left. and \right. if you don’t want a delimiter to appear:

\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X

\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X