Series on Blogging with LaTeX

This is the 4th post in the series. Previous ones:

Many of the examples shown here were adapted from the Wikipedia article Displaying a formula, which is actually about formulas in Math Markup. .

## Spacing in formulas

There are some modifiers that can add some spaces between LaTeX constructs displayed in mathematical expressions:

\, small space

\: medium space

\; large space

\! negative space

\quad – large separation

\qquad – very large separation

Examples:

• \forall x,y \, \exists z gives $\forall x,y \exists z$
• \forall x,y \, \exists z gives $\forall x,y \, \exists z$
• \forall x,y \: \exists z gives $\forall x,y \: \exists z$
• \forall x,y \; \exists z gives $\forall x,y \; \exists z$
• \sum_i \; \sum_j x_{i,j} gives $\sum_i \; \sum_j x_{i,j}$
• \sum_i \; \sum_j x_{i,j} gives $\sum_i \sum_j x_{i,j}$
• \sum_i \! \sum_j x_{i,j} gives $\sum_i \! \sum_j x_{i,j}$
• \sum_i x_i q\quad \sum_j y_j gives $\sum_i x_i \quad \sum_j y_j$
• \sum_i x_i \qquad \sum_j y_j gives $\sum_i x_i \qquad \sum_j y_j$

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## Font styles

Supported font styles:

• {\rm Roman} ${\rm Roman}$
• {\bf Bold} ${\bf Bold}$
• {\it Italic} ${\it Italic}$
• {\sf Sans Serif} ${\sf Sans Serif}$
• {\sl Slanted} ${\sl Slanted}$
• {\cal A B C D E F} ${\cal A B C D E F}$
• {\frak A} {\frak B} {\frak C} {\frak d} {\frak e} {\frak f} ${\frak A} {\frak B} {\frak C} {\frak d} {\frak e} {\frak f}$

Examples:

a) default style
\oint_C \nabla \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S rot \, E \cdot dS gives $\oint_C \nabla \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S rot \, E \cdot dS$

b) some changes: nabla to triangledown, fonts in rot and E
\oint_C \triangledown \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S {\bf rot} \, {\sf E} \cdot dS $\oint_C \triangledown \phi \cdot dl = \iint_S {\bf rot} \, {\sf E} \cdot dS$

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## Some extra symbols

Some Hebrew characters, Greek characters and some miscellaneous stuff . Some special symbols. There are many more in Wikipedia article.

\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth

$\aleph \; \beth \; \gimel \; \daleth$

\varpi \varrho \varsigma \varphi \varepsilon \vartheta \varkappa

$\varpi \; \varrho \; \varsigma \; \varphi \; \varepsilon \; \vartheta \; \varkappa$

\pi \rho \sigma \phi \epsilon \theta \kappa (compare with the ones above)

$\pi \; \rho \; \sigma \; \phi \; \epsilon \; \theta \; \kappa$

\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \zeta \eta \iota \lambda \mu \nu \xi \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega

$\; \alpha \; \beta \; \gamma \; \delta \; \zeta \; \eta \; \iota \; \lambda \; \mu \; \nu \; \xi \; \tau \; \upsilon \; \phi \; \chi \; \psi \; \omega$

\Theta \Upsilon \Phi \Psi \Omega

$\Theta \; \Upsilon \; \Phi \; \Psi \; \Omega$

\Gamma \Delta \Lambda \Xi \Pi \Sigma

$\Gamma \; \Delta \; \Lambda \; \Xi \; \Pi \; \Sigma$

\digamma \Finv \varpropto

$\digamma \; \Finv \; \varpropto$

\flat \natural \sharp \hbar \Bbbk

$\flat \; \natural \; \sharp \; \hbar \; \Bbbk$

\diamondsuit \heartsuit \clubsuit \spadesuit \Game

$\diamondsuit \heartsuit \clubsuit \spadesuit \Game$

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## Parenthesizing big expressions, brackets, bars

Examples of several types of constructions with parenthesizing

\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( … \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]

$\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( ... \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]$

\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ … \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle

$\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ ... \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle$

\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| … \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big|

$\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| ... \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big|$

\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor … \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rcei

$\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor ... \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rceil$

\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow … \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow

$\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow ... \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow$

\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow … \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow
$\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow ... \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow$

\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / … \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash
$\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / ... \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash$

## More constructions

Parentheses ( \frac{a}{b} ) \quad \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )

$( \frac{a}{b} ) \quad \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )$

Brackets \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack

$\left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack$

Braces \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace

$\left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace$

Angle brackets \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle

$\left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle$

Bars and double bars \left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \quad \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|

$\left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \quad \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|$

Floor and ceiling functions \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \quad \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil

$\left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \quad \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil$

Slashes and backslashes \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash

$\left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash$

Up, down and up-down arrows \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow
$\left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow$

Observations:

Delimiters can be mixed, as long as: \left and \right match

\left [ 0,1 \right )

$\left [ 0,1 \right) \$

( 0,1 ) [ 0,1 ] ( 0,1 ] [ 0,1 ) also work , without the need of \left and \right

$( 0,1 ) \; [ 0,1 ] \; ( 0,1 ] \; [ 0,1 ) \$

\left \langle \psi \right |

$\left \langle \psi \right |$

\langle \psi | …….\langle \psi | \phi \rangle \ ….. and

\langle \psi | \, A^TBA \, | \phi \rangle ……. also work

$\langle \psi | \quad \langle \psi | \phi \rangle \quad \langle \psi | \, A^TBA \, | \phi \rangle$

Use \left. and \right. if you don’t want a delimiter to appear:

\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X

$\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X$